The succession of Caliph Omar ibn Al-Khattab, his religious standing, and his martyrdom

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The succession of Caliph Omar ibn Al-Khattab, his religious standing, and his martyrdom
Prepared by / Reham Mohamed

 

His succession

When Caliph Abu Bakr felt that he was nearing his death, he gathered the companions of the immigrants and supporters and consulted them about their opinion, so Omar took over the caliphate after him, and they said that he was suitable and the best one would assume this position, but there were people who were afraid that Omar would remain his successor because of the severity and ruggedness And the strength that Umar bin Khattab was known for, but they were convinced that he was suitable for the position. When this word reached Umar, he said to the people, “I was told that people relented to my distress, and they feared my ruggedness, or they said Omar was getting tough on us and the Messenger of God among us, then strengthened us and Abu Bakr And to us without him; how have things turned to him? O people, I have your affairs fulfilled, O people, so know that this distress has weakened, but it is only against the people of injustice. “>>. And when Abu Bakr passed away, Omar took over the succession.

The era of Omar bin Al-Khattab had administrative and civilizational achievements and an expansion of the state of Al-Khufa Al-Rashideen, as he was the first to use the Hijri calendar after the advice of the companions Ali bin Abi Talib, and the first to work in the offices such as the House of Money (the Ministry of Finance for now) and the Dar al-Daqiq (the Ministry of Supply now The state was interested in creating new cities, such as Kufa and Basra, and the expansion of the Prophet’s Mosque and let al-Jazirah, the tax that the People of the Book would pay in order to provide the army in exchange for their protection, to be applied according to the standard of living and social, and it was exempt from them that which could not be paid. One of the most famous needs that Omar bin Al-Khattab made is the law and the document that was introduced to the age covenant when the Muslims conquered Jerusalem, and the Christians’ security over their churches and their properties, and that they have all the rights and duties and prevent and offense any exposure to them. He created new laws for the army, such as a period for the compulsory recruitment of youth, border guards, limiting service to soldiers in the army (and setting it as 4 months), dividing the army into regular reserve forces, establishing an army office to write reports and assigning translators, judges, and doctors to accompany the army.

During his reign, Muslims entered the Levant, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, Libya, Azerbaijan, Nahavand, Gorgan and Afghanistan.

Religious standing

Muslims among the followers of the Sunni sect believe that the best people after the Prophet Muhammad are, in order, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, Umar ibn al-Khattab. And in two dimensions, Uthman bin Affan and two dimensions, Ali bin Abi Talib, who are the rightly-guided caliphs, respectively.
According to the Christians, he is the owner of the famous age covenant in the conquest of Jerusalem, because Jerusalem was opened with his covenant in peace and without blood, and he gave security to Christians and their churches.

His martyrdom and death

On Wednesday, 26 Dhu al-Hijjah, 23 AH / 644AD, during the Fajr prayer, he was the leader of the people in the mosque, and when he prostrated during the prayer, he stabbed him with a poisoned dagger three stabs of a Persian named Fayrouz and known as Abu Lu’lu’a, who tried to escape and hit one Talacher (Seven of them died) while he was trying to escape, and in the other he committed suicide before he could hold on. People paralyzed the caliph, who was still living in his house, and Abd al-Rahman bin Auf was assigned to complete the prayer with the people. Before he died, he chose six of the great companions, namely Othman bin Affan, Ali bin Abi Talib, Talha bin Ubaid Allah, Al-Zubayr bin Al-Awam, Abd al-Rahman bin Auf, Saad bin Abi Waqas, and instructed them to choose one of them that he would remain a caliph and he guided them for three days so that They choose and in the end they choose Othman bin Affan to remain the caliph of the Muslims.

 

خلافة الخليفة عمر بن الخطاب ومكانته الدينية وإستشهاده
إعداد / ريهام محمد

خلافته

عندما احس الخليفه ابو بكر انه قارب موته , جمع الصحابه من المهاجرين و الأنصار و استشارهم عن رأيهم ف تولى عمر الخلافه من بعده , فقالوا انه مناسب و احسن واحد يتولى المنصب ده , بس كان فيه ناس متخوفين من ان عمر يبقى خليفه عشان شدة و غلظة و القوة اللى عمر بن خطاب كان معروف بها , بس اقتنعوا انه مناسب للمنصب , لما وصل الكلام ده لعمر قال للناس «”بلغني أن الناس هابوا شدتي، وخافوا غلظتي او قالوا قد كان عمر يشتد علينا ورسول الله بين أظهرنا، ثم اشتد علينا وأبو بكر والينا دونه؛ فكيف وقد صارت الامور إليه؟ أيها الناس إني قد وُليت اموركم، أيها الناس فاعلموا أن تلك الشدة قد أُضعفت ولكنها إنما تكون على اهل الظلم”>>. و لما توفى ابو بكر اتولى عمر الخلافه.

عهد عمر بن الخطاب كان فيه انجازات اداريه و حضاريه و توسع لدولة الخفا الراشدين , فهو اول من استخدم التقويم الهجرى بعد مشوره للصحابى على بن ابى طالب , و اول من عمل الدواوين زى بيت المال ( وزارة الماليه دلوقتى) و دار الدقيق ( وزارة التموين دلوقتى) للدولة و اهتم بعمل مدن جديده زى الكوفه و البصره و وسع الجامع النبوى و خلى الجزيه , الضريبه اللى بيدفعها اهل الكتاب عشان ميدخلوش الجيش فى مقابل حمايتهم , بتتطبق على حسب المستوى المعيشى و الاجتماعى و كان بيعفى منها اللى مكنش يقدر يدفعها. من اشهر الحاجات اللى عملها عمر بن الخطاب هو القانون و الوثيقة اللى اتعرفت بالعهدة العمرية لما المسلمين فتحوا القدس , و امن المسيحين على كنايسهم و ممتلكاتهم و انهم لهم كل الحقوق و الواجبات و منع و جرم اى تعرض لهم. و عمل قوانين جديده للجيش زى فترة للتجنيد الاجباري للشباب , حرس الحدود , و حدد خدمة العساكر فى الجيش ( و حددها 4 شهور) , و قسم الجيش لقوات احتياطيه نظاميه و عمل ديوان للجيش لكتابة تقراير و كلف مترجمين و قضاه و اطباء انهم يرافقوا الجيش.

فى عهده المسلمين دخلوا بلاد الشام و العراق و فارس و مصر , ليبيا , أذربيجان و نهاوند و جرجان و افغنستان.

مكانته الدينية

المسلمين من من أتباع المذهب السنى مؤمنين أن افضل الناس بعد النبى محمد هم بالترتيب ابو بكر الصديق، عمر بن الخطاب. و بعدين عثمان بن عفان و بعدين على بن ابى طالب , اللى هم الخلفا الراشدين بالترتيب.
وعند المسيحين هو صاحب العهدة العمرية الشهيرة في فتح القدس، لأنها القدس اتفتحت بعهده بسلام ودون دم، وأعطى الأمان للمسيحين وكنايسهم.

 

إستشهاده ووفاته

فى يوم الاربعاء 26 ذي الحجة سنة 23 هـ/ الموافق 644 م فى صلاة الفجر و هو بيؤم الناس فى الجامع و لما سجد فى الصلاة , طعنه بخنجر مسموم تلات طعنات واحد فارسى اسمه فيروز و معروف باسم ابو لؤلؤة , اللى حاول يهرب و ضرب تلاتشر واحد (مات منهم سبعة) و هو بيحاول يهرب وفى الاخر انتحر قبل ما يتمسك. الناس شالت الخليفه اللى كان لسه عايش لبيته و كلف عبد الرحمن بن عوف انه يكمل الصلاة بالناس. قبل ما يموت اختار ستة من الصحابة الكبار و هم عثمان بن عفان ، على بن ابى طالب ، طلحة بن عبيدالله ، الزبير بن العوام، عبد الرحمن بن عوف، سعد بن ابى وقاص و كلفهم انهم يختاروا واحد منهم انه يبقى خليفة و ادلهم تلات ايام عشان يختاروا و فى الاخر اختاروا عثمان بن عفان عشان يبقى خليفة للمسلمين.